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conceptual physics books Crowell pdf free 2021|physicscastle

 conceptual physics books Crowell pdf free 2021

conceptual physics books pdf

introduction to conceptual physics books : 

For a semester-length course, all seven chapters can be covered. For a shorter course, the book is designed so that chapters 1, 2, and 5 are the only ones that are required for continuity; any of the others can be included or omitted at the instructor’s discretion, with the only constraint being that chapter 6 requires chapter 4.

Symmetry and Conservation Laws : 

       Even before history began, people must already have noticed certain facts about the sky. The sun and moon both rise in the east and set in the west. Another fact that can be settled to a fair degree of accuracy using the naked eye is that the apparent sizes of the sun and moon don't change noticeably, (There is an optical illusion that makes the moon appear bigger when it's near the horizon, but you can easily verify that it's nothing more than an illusion by checking its angular size against some standard, such as your pinkie held at arm's length.) 

      If the sun and moon were varying their distances from us, they would appear to get bigger and smaller, and since they don't appear to change in size, it appears, at least approximately, that they always stay at the same distance from us, From observations like these, the ancients constructed a scientist model, in which the sun and moon traveled around the earth in perfect circles. Of course, we now know that the earth isn't the center of the universe, but that doesn't mean the model wasn't useful. That's the way science always works. Science never aims to reveal the ultimate reality. Science only tries to make models of reality that have predictive power. Our modern approach to understanding physics revolves around the concepts of symmetry and conservation laws, both of which are demonstrated by this example.

The sun and moon were believed to move in circles, and a circle is a very symmetric shape If you rotate a circle about its center, like a spinning wheel, it doesn't change. Therefore, we say that the circle is symmetric with respect to rotation about its center, The ancients thought it was beautiful that the universe seemed to have this type of symmetry built in, and they became very attached to the idea .

Brief Contents : 

  • Conservation of Mass and Energy 
  • Conservation of Momentum 
  • Conservation of Angular Momentum 
  • Relativity 
  • Electricity 
  • Fields 
  • The Ray Model of Light 
  • Waves